$3 Gazechimp for Mini Pocket Bike Bicycle 47cc 49cc Chain Adjusters Automotive Motorcycle Powersports $3 Gazechimp for Mini Pocket Bike Bicycle 47cc 49cc Chain Adjusters Automotive Motorcycle Powersports Gazechimp for Mini Pocket Dedication Bike Chain Adjusters 47cc Bicycle 49cc Chain,Adjusters,for,Bike,47cc,Bicycle,www.alecpricewrites.co.uk,Pocket,Gazechimp,Automotive , Motorcycle Powersports,$3,49cc,/amatungula115410.html,Mini Chain,Adjusters,for,Bike,47cc,Bicycle,www.alecpricewrites.co.uk,Pocket,Gazechimp,Automotive , Motorcycle Powersports,$3,49cc,/amatungula115410.html,Mini Gazechimp for Mini Pocket Dedication Bike Chain Adjusters 47cc Bicycle 49cc
- 10mm Hole
- Brand new and high quality
- Perfect for strength, durable
- Easy to install and competitive price
- For 47cc 49cc Mini Motor Pocket Dirt Bike
2 Pieces Chain Adjuster Tensioner
Vermeer et al. report that gain-of-function mutations in the ubiquitin ligase component Kelch-like 24 (KLHL24), which occur in a subset of patients with epidermolysis bullosa simplex, promote dilated cardiomyopathy via excessive degradation of desmin. The cover image is a pseudocolored electron micrograph showing the ultrastructure of dynamically loaded, human induced pluripotent stem cell–derived engineered heart tissues.
S Indicates subscriber content
Loss-of-function mutations in the transcription factor CREB3L3 (CREBH) associate with severe hypertriglyceridemia in humans. CREBH is believed to lower plasma triglycerides by augmenting the action of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). However, by using a mouse model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), we found that greater liver expression of active CREBH normalized both elevated plasma triglycerides and cholesterol. Residual triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) remnants were enriched in apolipoprotein E (APOE) and impoverished in APOC3, an apolipoprotein composition indicative of increased hepatic clearance. The underlying mechanism was independent of LPL as CREBH reduced both triglycerides and cholesterol in LPL-deficient mice. Instead, APOE was critical for CREBH’s ability to lower circulating remnant lipoproteins because it failed to reduce TRL cholesterol in Apoe-/- mice. Importantly, humans with CREB3L3 loss-of-function mutations exhibited increased levels of remnant lipoproteins that were deprived of APOE. Recent evidence suggests that impaired clearance of TRL remnants promotes cardiovascular disease in patients with T1DM. Consistently, we found that hepatic expression of CREBH prevented the progression of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. Our results support the proposal that CREBH acts through an APOE-dependent pathway to increase hepatic clearance of remnant lipoproteins. They also implicate elevated levels of remnants in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in T1DM.
Masami Shimizu-Albergine, Debapriya Basu, Jenny E. Kanter, Farah Kramer, Vishal Kothari, Shelley Barnhart, Carissa Thornock, Adam E. Mullick, Noemie Clouet-Foraison, Tomas Vaisar, Jay W. Heinecke, Robert A. Hegele, Ira J. Goldberg, Karin E. Bornfeldt
The transcription factor NFATC2 induces β-cell proliferation in mouse and human islets. However, the genomic targets that mediate these effects have not been identified. We expressed active forms of Nfatc2 and Nfatc1 in human islets. By integrating changes in gene expression with genomic binding sites for NFATC2, we identified ~2,200 transcriptional targets of NFATC2. Genes induced by NFATC2 were enriched for transcripts that regulate the cell cycle, and for DNA motifs associated with the transcription factor FOXP. Islets from an endocrine-specific Foxp1, Foxp2, and Foxp4 triple-knockout mouse are less responsive to NFATC2-induced β-cell proliferation, suggesting the FOXP family works to regulate β-cell proliferation in concert with NFATC2. NFATC2 induced β-cell proliferation in both mouse and human islets, whereas NFATC1 did so only in human islets. Exploiting this species difference, we identified ~250 direct transcriptional targets of NFAT in human islets. This gene set enriches for cell cycle-associated transcripts, and includes Nr4a1. Deletion of Nr4a1 reduced the capacity of NFATC2 to induce β-cell proliferation, suggesting that much of the effect of NFATC2 occurs through its induction of Nr4a1. Integration of non-coding RNA expression, chromatin accessibility, and NFATC2 binding sites enabled us to identify NFATC2-dependent enhancer loci that mediate β-cell proliferation.
Shane P. Simonett, Sunyoung Shin, Jacob A. Herring, Rhonda Bacher, Linsin A. Smith, Chenyang Dong, Mary E. Rabaglia, Donnie S. Stapleton, Kathryn L. Schueler, Jeea Choi, Matthew N. Bernstein, Daniel R. Turkewitz, Carlos Perez-Cervantes, Jason Spaeth, Roland Stein, Jeffery S. Tessem, Christina Kendziorski, Sunduz Keles, Ivan P. Moskowitz, Mark P. Keller, Alan D. Attie
Initiation of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling involves the activation of the tyrosine kinase LCK; however, it is currently unclear how LCK is recruited and activated. Here, we have identified the membrane protein CD146 as an essential member of the TCR network for LCK activation. CD146 deficiency in T cells substantially impaired thymocyte development and peripheral activation, both of which depend on TCR signaling. CD146 was found to directly interact with the SH3 domain of coreceptor-free LCK via its cytoplasmic domain. Interestingly, CD146 was found to be present in both monomeric and dimeric forms in T cells, with the dimerized form increasing after TCR ligation. Increased dimerized CD146 recruited LCK and promoted LCK autophosphorylation. In tumor models, CD146 deficiency dramatically impaired the anti-tumor response of T cells. Together, our data reveal a previously unrecognized LCK activation mechanism for TCR initiation. We also underscore a rational intervention based on CD146 for tumor immunotherapy.
Hongxia Duan, Lin Jing, Xiaoqing Jiang, Yanbin Ma, Daji Wang, Jianquan Xiang, Xuehui Chen, Zhenzhen Wu, Huiwen Yan, Junying Jia, Zheng Liu, Jing Feng, Mingzhao Zhu, Xiyun Yan
Peripheral nerves have the capacity for regeneration, but the rate of regeneration is so slow that many nerve injuries lead to incomplete recovery and permanent disability for patients. Macrophages play a critical role in the peripheral nerve response to injury, both for Wallerian degeneration and for contributing to regeneration, and their function has recently been shown to be dependent on intracellular metabolism. To date, the impact of their intracellular metabolism on peripheral nerve regeneration has not been studied. Examining conditional transgenic mice with selective ablation of solute carrier family 16, member 1 (Slc16a1, which encodes the monocarboxylate transporter 1, MCT1) in macrophages, we found that MCT1 contributes to macrophage metabolism, phenotype, and function, specifically in regard to phagocytosis and supporting peripheral nerve regeneration. Adoptive cell transfer of wild-type macrophages ameliorated the impaired nerve regeneration in macrophage-selective MCT1 null mice. We also developed a mouse model that overexpresses MCT1 in macrophages and found that peripheral nerves in these mice regenerated more rapidly than control mice. Our study provides further evidence that MCT1 has an important biological role in macrophages and that manipulations of macrophage metabolism can enhance recovery from peripheral nerve injuries, for which there are currently no approved medical therapies.
Mithilesh Kumar Jha, Joseph V. Passero, Atul Rawat, Xanthe Heifetz Ament, Fang Yang, Svetlana Vidensky, Samuel L. Collins, Maureen R. Horton, Ahmet Hoke, Guy A. Rutter, Alban Latremoliere, Jeffrey D. Rothstein, Brett M. Morrison
Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are involved in migraine, epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and subarachnoid haemorrhage. However, the cellular origin and specific differential mechanisms are not clear yet. Increased glutamatergic activity is thought to be the key factor for generating cortical spreading depression (CSD), a pathological mechanism of migraine. Here, we show that acute pharmacological activation of NaV1.1 (the main Na+ channel of interneurons) or optogenetic-induced hyperactivity of GABAergic interneurons is sufficient to ignite CSD in the neocortex by spiking-generated extracellular K+ build-up. Neither GABAergic nor glutamatergic synaptic transmission were required for CSD initiation. CSD was not generated in other brain areas, suggesting that this is a neocortex-specific mechanism of CSD initiation. Gain-of-function mutations of NaV1.1 (SCN1A) cause Familial Hemiplegic Migraine type-3 (FHM3), a subtype of migraine with aura, of which CSD is the neurophysiological correlate. Our results provide the mechanism linking NaV1.1 gain-of-function to CSD generation in FHM3. Thus, we reveal the key role of hyperactivity of GABAergic interneurons in a mechanism of CSD initiation, which is relevant as pathological mechanism of Nav1.1 FHM3 mutations, and possibly also for other types of migraine and diseases in which SDs are involved.
Oana Chever, Sarah Zerimech, Paolo Scalmani, Louisiane Lemaire, Lara Pizzamiglio, Alexandre Loucif, Marion Ayrault, Martin Krupa, Mathieu Desroches, Fabrice Duprat, Isabelle Léna, Sandrine Cestèle, Massimo Mantegazza
JCI This Month is a digest of the research, reviews, and other features published each month.
This collection of reviews focuses on the gut-brain axis, highlighting crosstalk between the gastrointestinal tract and the enteric and central nervous systems. While the enteric nervous system can exert independent control over the gut, multi-directional communication with the central nervous system, as well as intestinal epithelial, stromal, immune, and enteroendocrine cells can result in wide-ranging influences on health and disease. The gut microbiome and its metabolites add further complexity to this intricate interactive network. Reviews in this series take a critical approach to describing the role of gut-brain connections in conditions affecting both gut and brain, with the common goal of illuminating the importance of the central and enteric nervous system interface in disease pathogenesis and identifying nodes that offer therapeutic potential.